Scientific Studies

Below are links to a variety of clinical studies and published materials supporting the efficacy of Antimicrobial Copper. For more information, please contact us at

Potential of copper alloys to kill bacteria and reduce hospital infection rates

    Michels and Michels, Internal Medicine Review, March 2017

Antimicrobial copper alloys decreased bacteria on stethoscope surfaces

    Michael G. Schmidt et al. American Journal of Infection Control. 2017.

Copper alloy surfaces sustain terminal cleaning levels in a rural hospital
    Shannon M. Hinsa-Leasure, Queenster Nartey, Justin Vaverka, Michael G. Schmidt. American Journal of Infection Control, 28 September 2016

Potential effectiveness of copper surfaces in reducing health care– associated infection rates in a pediatric intensive and intermediate care unit: A nonrandomized controlled trial
    Bettina von Dessauer MD, Maria S. Navarrete MD, Dona Benadof MD, Carmen Benavente MD,  Michael G. Schmidt PhD.

Perspectives from the field in response to “It is time to revise our approach to registering antimicrobial agents for health care settings”
    Michael G. Schmidt, Joseph J. John Jr., Katherine D. Freeman, Peter A. Sharpe, Adam A. Estelle, Harold T. Michels. American Journal of Infection Control, 9 August 2016

Copper alloys - The new ‘old’ weapon in the fight against infectious disease
    Harold T. Michels, Corinne A. Michels, Current Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 10 2016

Antimicrobial Applications of Copper
    Marin Vincent, Philippe Hartemann, Marc Engels-Deutsch. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.06.003

From Laboratory Research to a Clinical Trial: Copper Alloy Surfaces Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital-Acquired Infections
    Michels, H.T. 2015. Health Environments Research & Design Journal. 1–16.

Destruction of the Capsid and Genome of GII.4 Human Norovirus Occurs During Exposure to Metal Alloys Containing Copper
    C. S. Manuel, M. D. Moore and L.A. Jaykus, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 15 May 2015

Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria 
    Meyer, T.J. 2015. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering. Vol:9, No:3.

Understanding the Role of Facility Design in the Acquisition and Prevention of Healthcare-associated Infections
    Health Environments and Research Design Journal, Vol 7, Supplement, 2013

Enhancing Patient Safety through Strategic Placement of Copper Surfaces
    M G Schmidt, C D Salgado, K A Sepkowitz, J F John, H H Attaway, III, R J Cantey, L L Steed, A A Estelle, H T Michels. Presented at the IPS Scottish Branch Conference 29 May 2014.

Copper Surfaces Reduce the Rate of Healthcare-Acquired Infections in the Intensive Care Unit 
    Cassandra D Salgado, MD; Kent A Sepkowitz, MD; Joseph F John, MD; J Robert Cantey, MD; Hubert H Attaway, MS; Katherine D Freeman, DrPH; Peter A Sharpe, MBA; Harold T Michels, PhD; Michael G Schmidt, PhD. ICHE, Vol. Vol. 34, No. 5, 2013., Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology , Vol. 34, No. 5, Special Topic Issue: The Role of the Environment in Infection Prevention (May 2013), pp. 479-486.

Copper Continuously Limits the Concentration of Bacteria Resident on Bed Rails within the Intensive Care Unit
    Michael G Schmidt, PhD; Hubert H Attaway III, MS; Sarah E Fairey, BS; Lisa L Steed, PhD; Harold T Michels, PhD; Cassandra D Salgado, MD, MS Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Vol. 34, No. 5.

Experimental Tests of Copper Components in Ventilation Systems for Microbial Control 
    Charles Feigley, Jamil Khan, Deborah Salzberg, James Hussey, Hubert Attaway, Lisa Steed, Michael Schmidt and Harold Michels, (2013), HVAC&R Research, 19:1, 53-62

Sustained Reduction of Microbial Burden on Common Hospital Surfaces through Introduction of Copper
    Michael G Schmidt, Hubert H Attaway, Peter A Sharpe, Joseph John Jr, Kent A Sepkowitz, Andrew Morgan, Sarah E Fairey, Susan Singh, Lisa L Steed, J Robert Cantey, Katherine D Freeman, Harold T Michels, Cassandra D Salgado J Clin Microbiol July 2012 vol 50

Characterization and Control of the Microbial Community Affiliated with Copper or Aluminum Heat Exchangers of HVAC Systems
    Michael G Schmidt, Hubert H Attaway, Silva Terzieva, Anna Marshall, Lisa L Steed, Deborah Salzberg, Hameed A Hamoodi, Jamil A Khan, Charles E Feigley, Harold T Michels. Curr Microbiol, 2012 May 9.

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Copper Surfaces in an Outpatient Infectious Disease Practice 
    Seema Rai, Bruce E Hirsch, Hubert H Attaway, Richard Nadan, S Fairey, J Hardy, G Miller, Donna Armellino, Wilton R Moran, Peter Sharpe, Adam Estelle, J H Michel, Harold T Michels and Michael G Schmidt

Antimicrobial metallic copper surfaces kill Staphylococcus haemolyticus via membrane damage
    Christophe Espírito Santo, Davide Quaranta, Gregor Grass. MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 46–52, March 2012, DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.2

Antimicrobial activity of different copper alloy surfaces against copper resistant and sensitive Salmonella enterica
    Libin Zhu, Jutta Elguindi, Christopher Rensing, Sadhana Ravishankar, Article in Food Microbiology 30 (2012) 303-310. Copyright 2011 Elsevier Ltd

Control and Mitigation of Healthcare-Acquired Infections
    Peter A Sharpe, MBA, EDAC, and Michael G Schmidt, MA, PhD. Control and mitigation of healthcare-acquired infections: Designing clinical trials to evaluate new materials and technologies. Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 5(1), 94-115. 2011.

Risk Mitigation of Hospital Acquired Infections Through the Use of Antimicrobial Copper Surfaces
    W R Moran, H H Attaway, M G Schmidt, J F John, C D Salgado, K A Sepkowitz, R J Cantey, L L Steed, H T Michels. Poster presented at the American Hospital Association and Health Forum Leadership Summit 2011, July 17-19, 2011, San Diego, CA.

The potential for the application of metallic copper surfaces as a method for preventing surface and airborne microbial contamination in military healthcare facilities, food handling operations, and other occupational settings
    Anton Shufutinsky, Harold Michels, Wilton Moran, Adam Estelle, James Michel, Chris Dreska, Dennis Simon. Poster presented at 2011 US Armed Forces Public Health Conference.

Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces 
    C Espírito Santo, E W Lam, C G Elowsky, D Quaranta, D W Domaille, C J Chang, and G Grass, 2011. Bacterial killing by dry metallic copper surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 794-802

Metallic Copper as an Antimicrobial Surface
    Gregor Grass, Christopher Rensing and Marc Solioz, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. March 2011, pp 1541-1547. Vol 77, No 5. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02766-10

Mechanisms of Contact-Mediated Killing of Yeast Cells on Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces
    Davide Quaranta, Travis Krans, Christophe Espírito Santo, Christian G Elowsky, Dylan W Domaille, Christopher J Chang, Gregor Grass, Applied & Environmental Microbiology. Jan. 2011, p.416–426 Vol. 77, No. 2 0099-2240/11/$12.00 doi:10.1128/AEM.01704-10 ASM

Copper Surfaces Reduce the Microbial Burden in Out-Patient Infectious Disease Practice 
     B E Hirsch, H Attaway, R Nadan, S Fairey, J Hardy, G Miller, S Rai, D Armellino, M Schilling, W Moran, P Sharpe, A Estelle, J H Michel, H T Michels, M G Schmidt, Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Boston, MA, 2010

A Pilot Study to Determine the Effectiveness of Copper in Reducing the Microbial Burden (MB) of Objects in Rooms of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Patients
    C D Salgado, A Morgan, K A Sepkowitz et al. Poster 183, 5th Decennial International Conference on Healthcare-Associated Infections, Atlanta, March 29, 2010

Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Efficacy of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Challenged Antimicrobial Materials Containing Silver and Copper
    H T Michels, J O Noyce, and C W Keevil, Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49 (2009) 191-195

Microbial Burden (MB) of Objects (obs) in ICU Rooms (rms)
    C D Salgado, K A Sepkowitz, T Plaskett, J F John, J R Cantey, H H Attaway, L L Steed, H T Michels, M G Schmidt. October 2008.

Antimicrobial Properties of Copper Alloy Surfaces, with a Focus on Hospital-Acquired Infections      H T Michels, W Moran and J Michel, International Journal of Metalcasting, Summer 2008, pp 47-56

Antimicrobial regulatory efficacy testing of solid copper alloy surfaces in the USA
    H T Michels and D G Anderson, pp 185-190, Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine: Vol 10, Eds Ph Collery, I Maymard, T Theophanides, L Khassanova, T Collery. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris © 2008

The Antimicrobial Properties of Copper Alloys and their Potential Applications
    H T Michels, D G Anderson, J O Noyce, S A Wilks and C W Keevil, Proceedings of the Sixth International Copper-Cobre Conference, pp 121-133, Vol I, August 2007

Antimicrobial Characteristics of Copper
    H T Michels, ASTM Standardization News, October 2006.

Copper Alloys for Human Infectious Disease Control
    H T Michels, J P Noyce, S A Wilks and C W Keevil. Copper for the 21st Century, Materials Science & Technology 2005 (MS&T’05) Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, September 25-28, 2005, ASM, ACerS, AIST, AWS, TMS, ISSN: 1546-2498

The Effects of Copper Alloy Surfaces on the Viability of Bacterium, E. coli 0157:H7
    H T Michels, S A Wilks and C W Keevil. The Second Global Congress Dedicated to Hygienic Coatings & Surfaces, Orlando, Florida, USA, 26-28 January, 2004, Paper 16, Published by Paint Research Association, Middlesex, UK, ISBN 0-9543164-5-2, 2004.

The Antimicrobial effects of copper alloy surfaces on the bacterium, E. coli 0157:H7
    H T Michels, S A Wilks and C W Keevil, Proceedings of Copper 2003 - Cobre 2003, The 5th International Conference, November 30-December 2, 2003, Santiago, Chile, Vol. 1 - Plenary Lectures, Economics and Applications of Copper, pp. 439-450

Doorknobs: a source of nosocomial infection?
    P J Kuhn, Diagnostic Medicine, 1983.

Research Summaries on Antimicrobial Properties of Copper

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